Please note that we’ve updated this article since its original publication. Key changes include:
- SpecialAnnouncement markup is now being used to display rich results in search engines.
- You can now preview what results look like using Google’s rich results tester.
- Google Search Console is now reporting on impressions and clicks for SpecialAnnouncement rich results.
The American people need access to the most up-to-date, trusted information on coronavirus.
On April 15, 2020, a blog post from the White House directed that federal government websites add “SpecialAnnouncement” schema.org tags on web pages with information pertaining to the coronavirus pandemic to help ensure these critical resources appear in search engine results.
Below, based on our experience with schema.org tags on USA.gov, we explain how to do it, and what to expect. Please note that all aspects of this will be changing over time, including how search engines present information from web pages with these tags, and which tags they look for. We’ll update this content as we learn new information.
What are schema.org tags
Search engines try to learn about our web pages to provide good matches for their users’ searches. To do this, they gather more information than just the visible content on a page. There are lots of other types of data that search engines can use about a page, which website managers can share in the code of their sites.
Schema.org is an example. Created together by major search engines, the schema.org tags let you tell search engines about your content, so that they can better understand it. The tags create structure within unstructured web page data. For example, websites might use the schema.org tags to tell search engines that the breadcrumbs on their webpages are breadcrumbs, and then search engines can show these breadcrumbs in search results.
Similarly, search engines won’t be able to interpret different paragraphs of text appropriately without signals as to the type of content. USA.gov uses FAQPage, a type of schema.org markup, to tell them that some of the headings on our pages are questions and the text that follows are answers; search engines use these to create special results that show full question and answer content from that website within search results pages. SpecialAnnouncement is one of the many Schema.org types.
What is SpecialAnnouncement
The SpecialAnnouncement markup allows web pages to identify themselves as containing new and important information for the public concerning the coronavirus response. It also lets search engines provide a category for that type of information. Because these are announcements, they’re expected to apply for a limited amount of time, so expiration dates can be set. All of this data about the page can be used by search engines to present the page as a special or “rich” result to their users. These rich results are eye-catching to readers through modified layout, symbol and color.
The major search engines have published guidance on how they will interpret your use of SpecialAnnouncement. They also shared information about how they actually support the data by using it in search results.
Schema.org also has lots of detailed information about SpecialAnnouncement. In most cases, the search engine documentation should be sufficient to get you going.
What might search engines do with SpecialAnnouncement markup
At the minimum, using SpecialAnnouncement can help search engines learn about important information that we disseminate to the public. In some circumstances, search engines are using the markup to generate rich results that display the tagged information in an eye-catching way. Search engines may replace a page’s standard listing in a results page with a rich result. Or, if a page ranks very highly for a certain query, a search engine may place the rich result in a prominent place. As discussed below, SpecialAnnouncement markup does not improve the ranking of a page, but it can trigger a rich result that can both draw user attention and feature the text included in the markup. Here is a recent example of a SpecialAnnouncement rich result with the accordioned content open and visible:
Does my page need this markup
Yes, any web page your agency publishes about coronavirus needs this markup.
In Connecting Americans to Coronavirus Information Online, “The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and Office of Management and Budget (OMB) directed Federal Chief Information Officers to incorporate these new Schema.org standard tags into all federally maintained web pages related to COVID-19.” When a government web page that announces information about our coronavirus pandemic response includes SpecialAnnouncement markup, it will help search engines fine-tune their support for our information. And, having markup on your pages now means that they are ready for special treatment in results pages.
In the event that it is not possible to add the markup to every page that might be appropriate, here are some considerations USA.gov has used to prioritize.
Learn about your page’s position in search results
People who use search engines have questions. Our websites often have answers, but to be visible, we have to beat out other websites. When dealing with whether or not a rich result appears for your page, you enter the often murky world of search engine optimization (SEO). As confusing as it can be, there are some clear basic steps that we can take to make our pages friendly to search engines. A good place to start is with this advice from Google for government agencies and health organizations.
The major search engine companies also provide tools that let you see how your pages rank in results for individual search terms. These tools in Google Search Console and Bing Webmaster Tools can help you get the data you need to make choices about a page and improve its ranking. If a page is not appearing in a high position for any query, no rich results will ever be triggered.
Start with pages that already rank high
Adding the markup will not improve the results ranking for any given page. A page won’t be listed higher in search results pages than it normally would by adding the markup. But while using schema.org tags like this does not improve position in search results, if a page already ranks highly for a certain query and that page has supported schema.org markup on it, the special treatment for that page’s listing may be triggered.
What information do you need to create the markup
USA.gov found we actually do not need much more information to create the markup. Because it is based on content we already have within the web page, it is pretty easy to create each field required by the markup.
As with all markup formats, SpecialAnnouncement creates structure within unstructured web page data. That means it applies signals to certain information in the page, as if assigning that information to fields in a database. Choosing the values for the categories it wants is sort of like filling out a form. It’s best to explore those categories using the documentation from the major search engines. For example, here is the list from Google. The list of mandatory fields you need to provide values for is very short; there are also options to choose fields depending on the topic of your page.
The main categories to answer are:
- The name of your announcement, which is basically a very short headline version.
- The category of your announcement, from a list or freeform text if none are applicable.
Depending on the category you choose, there may be more choices for extra information you can provide. Also consider the expiration date field.
If you still have questions, there is a Google SpecialAnnouncement support group you can join. You can also join Digital.gov’s web content managers community to ask and answer questions of your federal government peers.
How do I get the markup on the page
USA.gov’s preferred method for putting SpecialAnnouncement information onto pages is by coding it using JSON-LD, and then putting this code into the “head” section of the web page’s code. JSON-LD is a computer language that is just for data. It allows for simple pairs of categories and a value, and it allows for hierarchies. We prefer this method for several reasons. It is supported by multiple search engines, it’s easy for them to read, and it’s separate from the other parts of your code so it can be inserted and adjusted without breaking things.
If you are unable to get developer support to add JSON-LD to your web page, Google provides a form within your Search Console account to submit SpecialAnnouncements. There are some limitations to this approach, however - you have to have a Google Search Console account, the announcements have early expiration dates, and Bing and other search engines do not get the information.
Managing SpecialAnnouncement pages over time
Adding new markup code with original content to individual web pages in this manner may be outside of your normal workflow, so you’ll need to add some new steps. You will need a way to keep track of this “hidden” content that you add to each web page. If possible, define a strategy for which markup you’ll add to which types of pages, and assign those pages to particular content types. You can then add the markup fields to the page template for that content type, which will allow you to make global changes as needed, and target items for regular review.
If the markup can’t be managed holistically, the expiration date field can be of some service, because once the announcement has expired in the search engines, it won’t have any impact.
How do I know if my markup is valid
Search engines provide validation tools for structured data. These tools allow you to submit a url for a web page, and then test to see if the code is correct for the types of structured data that the search engine supports. If there’s a problem, they can give you some clues on how to fix it. The Bing tool requires a Bing Webmaster Tools account. The Google rich results tester does not have such a requirement. Both tools know to look for and check SpecialAnnouncement. Google’s rich results tester now provides a preview of the rich result too. The style does not match what we are seeing in actual search results, but the structure, interactivity, and text are the same.
Here is an example of a preview of the rich result from above, but with the accordion closed:
USA.gov tests its code before we put it on a page. The rich results tester allows us to test pasted-in code, as well. It expects full page html, not just a block of JSON-LD, so to perfectly recreate what our page will be like with the code, we copy the page’s code into the tester, then we paste the new JSON-LD
<script> block into the head section of the page html already in the tester. Then, we run the test. (Tip: Remember to surround the JSON-LD with a
<script> tag as shown in the documentation.)
If you’re not a developer, but you’re writing the JSON-LD yourself, another tip is to copy a sample piece of code from the search engine documentation. Then, open a simple text editor like NotePad or TextEdit and turn off formatting so that it is only plain text. Paste in the sample code. Then, just change the parts you need to. Avoid using formatted text from a word processing program. Also, remember to put a backslash (
\) in front of quotation marks in href code if you provide hyperlinks within the “Text” field.
If your code is on a page and working, and you have access to Google Search Console or Bing Webmaster Tools, they provide forms so you can let them know that your page has been updated and therefore should be re-indexed soon.
These tools also list the pages from your website that they have discovered to contain the markup and whether or not they are valid. If your markup is not valid, and you make a change to try to fix it, you can request that the search engine re-index your page in order to evaluate the change.
How do I know if my markup is being used by search engines
In addition to revealing what marked up pages have been discovered, Google Search Console now reveals whether rich results based on SpecialAnnouncement markup have been shown to users (a metric called Impressions) and resulted in a referral to your page (called a Click). Here is an example of this data from the USA.gov Search Console account:
We will update this page as things change and as we learn more.
Please join the web content managers community to ask your questions and share news, findings, and results on this and other issues related to managing government digital content. If you have screenshots of SpecialAnnouncement rich results for any of your web pages, or Search Console data demonstrating their use by a search engine, please share.